Chidule cha Galantamine Hydrobromide

Galantamine hydrobromide Ndi mankhwala omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira matenda amisala Galantamine adachotsedwa koyamba pachomera cha chipale chofewa cha Galantus spp. The galantamine enaake ndi alkaloid apamwamba amene mankhwala apanga.

Ngakhale zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a Alzheimer sizikumveka bwino, zimadziwika kuti anthu omwe ali ndi matenda a Alzheimer's ali ndi vuto lochepa kwambiri la acetylcholine mu ubongo wawo. Acetylcholine imalumikizidwa ndi kuzindikira zinthu kuphatikiza kukumbukira, kuphunzira ndi kulumikizana pakati pa ena. Kutsika kwa mankhwalawa (acetylcholine) kumalumikizidwa ndi matenda amisala a matenda a Alzheimer.

Galantamine amapindulitsa odwala matenda a Alzheimer's chifukwa cha magwiridwe ake apawiri. Imagwira ndikukulitsa milingo ya acetylcholine m'njira ziwiri. Imodzi ndikuletsa kuwonongeka kwa acetylcholine ndipo inayo ndi kudzera mu allosteric modulation ya nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Njira ziwirizi zimathandizira kukulitsa kuchuluka kwa enzyme, acetylcholine.

Ngakhale atha kuchepetsa zizindikilo za matenda a Alzheimer's, galantamine hydrobromide siyothetseratu matenda a Alzheimer's popeza samakhudza chomwe chimayambitsa matendawa.

Kupatula phindu la galantamine pochiza matenda a Alzheimer's, galantamine yakhala ikugwirizanitsidwa ndi lucid loto. Maloto a Galantamine ndi lucid ndi mgwirizano womwe udanenedwa ndi ogwiritsa ntchito payokha. Kuti mukwaniritse galantamine iyi pamatenga nthawi pakati pa kugona kwanu mwachitsanzo mutagona mphindi 30. Ena othandizira zaumoyo amalimbikitsa mapindu olota a galantamine ndi lucid kudzera munthawi yoyang'aniridwa kuti apewe zovuta zina.

Chowonjezera cha Galantamine chimachitika m'mitundu ya piritsi, yankho la m'kamwa ndi kapule yotulutsidwa. Nthawi zambiri amatengedwa ndikudya ndikumwa madzi ambiri kuti mupewe zovuta zina.

Zotsatira zoyipa za galantamine zimaphatikizapo kunyoza, kusanza, kupweteka mutu, kupweteka m'mimba kapena kupweteka, kufooka kwa minofu, chizungulire, kugona, ndi kutsegula m'mimba. Zotsatira zoyipa za galantamine hydrobromide nthawi zambiri zimakhala zofewa ndipo zimachitika mukayamba kumwa mankhwalawa. Amatha kutha ndi nthawi, komabe ngati sangapite kukaonana ndi dokotala. Palinso zovuta zina koma zoyipa zomwe zimatha kuchitika monga kupuma movutikira, kupweteka pachifuwa, kupweteka kwambiri m'mimba, kuda kukodza, kukomoka, kukomoka pakati pa ena.

Galantamine Hydrobromide

 

Galantamine Hydrobromide

(1) Kodi Galantamine Hydrobromide ndi chiyani?

Galantamine hydrobromide ndi mankhwala akuchipatala omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira pang'ono kapena pang'ono maganizo ogwirizana ndi matenda a Alzheimer's. Matenda a Alzheimer's ndimavuto am'maganizo omwe nthawi zambiri amawononga kukumbukira ndi kuganiza, kuphunzira, kulumikizana komanso kuthekera kochita ntchito za tsiku ndi tsiku.

Mankhwala a galantamine hydrobromide sangathetse vuto la Alzheimer's koma atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mankhwala ena a Alzheimer's.

Zimapezeka m'njira zitatu zazikulu zosiyanasiyana. Mitundu ya galantamine ndimayankho am'kamwa, mapiritsi ndi makapisozi otulutsidwa.

 

) 2) Ndi chifukwa chiyani amagwiritsidwa ntchito? Ndani ayenera kumwa mankhwalawa?

Galantamine hydrobromide imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda ofooka a Alzheimer's. Galantamine hydrobromide sichiwonetsedwa ngati chithandizo cha matenda a Alzheimer's chifukwa sichimakhudza zomwe zimayambitsa matendawa.

Galantamine hydrobromide imawonetsedwa kuti imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu omwe ali ndi zizindikilo zochepa za matenda a Alzheimer's.

 

(3) Zimagwira ntchito bwanji?

Galantamine ali mgulu la mankhwala otchedwa acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Galantamine amagwira ntchito kuti achulukitse kuchuluka kwa enzyme, acetylcholine m'njira ziwiri. Choyamba imagwira ntchito ngati chosinthira komanso mpikisano wa acetylcholinesterase inhibitor motero imalepheretsa kuwonongeka kwa acetylcholine muubongo. Kachiwiri, imalimbikitsanso ma nicotinic receptors muubongo kutulutsa acetylcholine yambiri. 

Izi zimakweza kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine muubongo, zomwe zingathandize kuchepetsa zizindikilo zokhudzana ndi matenda amisala.

Galantamine ikhoza kuthandizira kukulitsa luso la kuganiza ndikupanga chikumbukiro komanso kuchepetsa kutayika kwa chidziwitso kwa odwala matenda a Alzheimer's.

 

Phindu la Galantamine Hydrobromide pa Alzheimer's'Matenda

Matenda a Alzheimer amachititsa kuti maselo aubongo achepetse kenako ndikufa. Zomwe zimayambitsa sizidziwika bwino koma matenda opitilirawa amathandizira kuchepa kwazidziwitso monga chikumbukiro, kuphunzira, kuganiza komanso kuthekera kochita ntchito za tsiku ndi tsiku. Zomwe zimadziwika ndi odwala matenda a Alzheimer's ndi otsika a mankhwala acetylcholine.

Galantamine imagwiritsa ntchito pochiza zizindikiritso za dementia zomwe zimakhudzana ndi matenda a Alzheimer's zimachitika chifukwa cha magwiridwe ake awiri. imawonjezera kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine, enzyme yofunikira pakupititsa patsogolo chidziwitso. Galantamine imagwira ntchito ngati chosinthira komanso mpikisano wa acetylcholinesterase inhibitor motero imalepheretsa kuwonongeka kwa acetylcholine. Zimathandizanso kuti ma nicotinic receptors atulutse acetylcholine yambiri.

Galantamine Hydrobromide

Zopindulitsa Zina

(1) Dzina la Antioxidant

Kupsinjika kwa oxidative kumadziwika kuti ndi komwe kumayambitsa zovuta zambiri monga matenda a Parkinson, matenda a Alzheimer's, matenda ashuga, pakati pa ena. Zimachitika mwachilengedwe ndi ukalamba koma pakakhala kusamvana pakati pa ma radicals aulere ndi ma antioxidants, kuwonongeka kwa minofu kumatha kuchitika.

Galantamine amadziwika kuti amawotcha mitundu yama oxygen yokhazikika ndipo amateteza ma neuron poletsa kuwonongeka kwa ma neuron ndi kupsinjika kwa oxidative. Galantamine amathanso kutsitsa kuchuluka kwa mitundu yama okisijeni yowonjezera mwa kuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine. 

 

(2) Antibacterial

Galantamine akuwonetsa zochita za antibacterial.

 

Kodi kumwa mankhwalawa?

i. Musanatenge Galantamine hydrobromide

Monga momwe zilili ndi mankhwala ena anzeru, muyenera kusamala musanatenge galantamine hydrobromide.

Lolani dokotala wanu kudziwa ngati muli ndi vuto la galantamine kapena zina zake zosagwira.

Fotokozerani mankhwala onse omwe mukumwa pakadali pano kuphatikizapo mankhwala, mankhwala owonjezera, mankhwala azitsamba kapena mankhwala aliwonse achilengedwe.

Ndikofunika kuti mudziwitse dokotala zina zomwe mukukumana nazo;

  • matenda a mtima
  • Matenda a chiwindi,
  • Mphumu,
  • Mavuto a impso,
  • Zilonda zam'mimba,
  • Zowawa zam'mimba,
  • Khunyu,
  • Kukula kwa prostate,
  • Opaleshoni yaposachedwa makamaka pamimba kapena chikhodzodzo.

Wothandizira zaumoyo wanu ayenera kudziwitsidwa ngati muli ndi pakati kapena mukukonzekera kutenga pakati komanso ngati mukuyamwitsa. Mukakhala ndi pakati mukatenga galantamine supplement, muyenera kuyankhula ndi dokotala posachedwa.

Ndikofunika kuuza dokotala wanu kuti mukumwa galantamine musanachite opaleshoni iliyonse kuphatikizapo opaleshoni ya mano.

Zotsatira za Galantamine hydrobromide onjezerani kusinza. Muyenera kupewa kuyendetsa ndi kugwiritsa ntchito makina. 

Kutenga galantamine ndi mowa kumatha kukulitsa zotsatira za galantamine hydrobromide za kugona.

 

ii. Mlingo woyenera

(1) Dementia yoyambitsidwa ndi Alzheimer's'Matenda

Galantamine hydrobromide yochizira matenda a Alzheimer's imachitika mwanjira inayake komanso mayina a galantamine monga Razadyne omwe kale ankatchedwa Reminyl.

Galantamine hydrobromide imachitika m'mitundu itatu ndi mphamvu zosiyanasiyana. Piritsi la pakamwa limapezeka m'mapiritsi a 4 mg, 8 mg ndi 12 mg. Njira yothetsera pakamwa imagulitsidwa munthawi ya 4mg / ml ndipo nthawi zambiri mu botolo la 100 ml. Kapisozi womasulidwa pakamwa amapezeka 8 mg, 16 mg ndi mapiritsi 24 mg.

Ngakhale mapiritsi am'kamwa ndi yankho amatengedwa kawiri tsiku lililonse kapisozi womasulidwa pakamwa amatengedwa kamodzi tsiku lililonse.

Kuyambira galantamine mlingo kwa mitundu yochiritsira (piritsi lakamwa ndi yankho la m'kamwa) ndi 4 mg kawiri tsiku lililonse. Mlingowu uyenera kutengedwa ndi chakudya cham'mawa ndi chamadzulo.

Kwa kapuleti womasulidwa nthawi yayitali mlingo woyenera ndi 8 mg tsiku lililonse womwe umatengedwa ndi chakudya cham'mawa. Kapisozi womasulidwa amayenera kumwedwa wathunthu kuti athe kutulutsa pang'onopang'ono mankhwalawa tsiku lonse. Chifukwa chake, osaphwanya kapena kudula kapisoziyo.

Kuti mupeze mlingo woyeserera kutengera kupirira kwanu kwa galantamine mu mawonekedwe ochiritsira ayenera kumwedwa pa 4 mg kapena 6 mg kawiri tsiku lililonse komanso kuwonjezeka kwa 4 mg maola 12 aliwonse osachepera milungu inayi.

Capsule yotulutsidwayo iyenera kusungidwa pa 16-24 mg tsiku ndi tsiku komanso kuwonjezeka kwa 8 mg pakadutsa milungu inayi.

Galantamine Hydrobromide

Zina zofunika kuziganizira mukamamwa galantamine

Nthawi zonse tengani galantamine ndi zakudya zanu komanso ndi madzi ambiri. Izi zithandiza kupewa zovuta za galantamine.

Ndibwino kuti mutenge mlingo woyenera wa galantamine nthawi yofananira tsiku lililonse. Ngati mwaphonya mlingo, imwani mukangokumbukira ngati mulingo wotsatira suli pafupi. Kupanda kutero tulukani mlingowo ndikupitiliza dongosolo lanu. Komabe, ngati mwaphonya mlingo wanu wamasiku atatu otsatizana, itanani dokotala wanu yemwe angakulangizeni kuti muyambe kumwa mankhwalawo.

Kutengera ndi cholinga chomwe mukufuna, dokotala wanu amatha kusintha mlingo wanu moyenera mwa kuwonjezera pamasabata osachepera 4. Osasintha mlingo wanu wa galantamine.

Ngati mwapatsidwa kapisozi womasulidwa, onetsetsani kuti mukumeza chonse popanda kutafuna kapena kuphwanya. Izi ndichifukwa choti piritsi limasinthidwa kuti litulutse mankhwala pang'onopang'ono tsiku lonse.

Pazakumwa zochokera pakamwa, nthawi zonse tsatirani malangizo omwe apatsidwa ndikuti ingowonjezerani mankhwalawo ku chakumwa chosakhala choledzeretsa chomwe chiyenera kutengedwa nthawi yomweyo. 

 

(2) Mlingo Wa Akulu (zaka 18 kapena kupitirira)

Kapisozi womasulidwa amakhala ndi muyeso woyamba wa 8 mg womwe umatengedwa kamodzi tsiku lililonse m'mawa. Wothandizira zaumoyo wanu amatha kusintha mlingo wanu powonjezera ndi 8 mg tsiku lililonse pakatha milungu ingapo ingapo. Pakukonzekera muyenera kumwa 4-16 mg tsiku lililonse monga adalangizidwa ndi dokotala wanu.

Pazomwe zimatulutsidwa mwachangu, muyeso woyambira ndi 4 mg womwe umamwedwa kawiri tsiku lililonse ndi chakudya motero 8 mg patsiku. Mlingowo ukhoza kuwonjezeredwa ndi dokotala wanu ndi 4 mg tsiku lililonse pakatha masabata anayi.

 

(3) Mlingo wa Ana (zaka 0-17 zaka)

Zotsatira za Galantamine hydrobromide siziphunziridwa mwa ana (zaka 0-17 zaka), ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi akatswiri azachipatala.

 

iii. Kodi muyenera kuchita chiyani ngati mankhwala osokoneza bongo atengedwa?

Ngati inu kapena odwala omwe mukuwayang'anira atenga kuchuluka kwa galantamine, muyenera kuyimbira foni kuchipatala nthawi yomweyo. Muthanso kupita kuchipatala chapafupi kwambiri posachedwa.

Zizindikiro zomwe zimachitika chifukwa cha galantamine bongo ndi nseru, kutuluka thukuta, kukokana m'mimba, kupuma movutikira, kugwedezeka kwa minofu kapena kufooka, khunyu, kukomoka, kugunda kwamtima mosalekeza komanso kuvuta pokodza.

Inu adokotala angakupatseni mankhwala ena monga atropine kuti musinthe zotsatira zoyipa za galantamine zomwe zimadza chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

 

Zotsatira zoyipa zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi Galantamine hydrobromide ndi ziti?

Ngakhale galantamine hydrobromide imapereka zabwino kwa anthu omwe ali ndi matenda a Alzheimer's, pakhoza kukhala zovuta zina za galantamine. Pali Zotsatira za galantamine kuti mwina koma si aliyense amene angawapeze.

Zotsatira zoyipa zomwe mungakumane nazo mukamagwiritsa ntchito galantamine ndi; 

  • nseru
  • kusanza
  • kugona
  • kutsekula
  • chizungulire
  • mutu
  • kusowa kwa njala
  • kupweteketsa mtima
  • kuwonda
  • ululu wamimba
  • kusowa tulo
  • m'maso mphuno

Zizindikirozi ndizofala mukayamba kumwa galantamine koma nthawi zambiri amakhala ofatsa ndipo amatha kutha chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa. Komabe, akapitilira kapena kukhala okhwima onetsetsani kuti mwayimbira dokotala wanu kuti akalandire upangiri waluso.

 

Zotsatira zoyipa

Anthu ena atha kukhala ndi zovuta zina. Zotsatira zoyipazi sizachilendo ndipo muyenera kuyimbira dokotala mukangozindikira.

Zotsatira zoyipa ndizo:

  • Zovuta zakuthambo zotupa ngati zotupa pakhungu, kuyabwa komanso nthawi zina kutupa kwa nkhope, mmero kapena lilime.
  • Zizindikiro za atrioventricular block kuphatikiza kuchepa kwa mtima, kutopa, chizungulire komanso kukomoka
  • Zilonda zam'mimba ndikutuluka magazi
  • Zilonda zamagazi kapena zimawoneka ngati malo a khofi
  • Kukula kwa mavuto am'mapapo mwa anthu omwe ali ndi mphumu kapena matenda ena am'mapapo
  • kugwidwa
  • kuvuta kukodza
  • kupweteka kwambiri m'mimba / m'mimba
  • magazi mkodzo
  • kutentha kapena kumva ululu pokodza

zina zotsatsa galantamine zoyipa zomwe zanenedwapo ndizo;

  • kugwidwa / kugwedezeka kapena kupindika
  • malingaliro
  • kutengeka,
  • tinnitus (kulira m'makutu)
  • chipika cha atrioventricular kapena mtima wathunthu
  • hepatitis
  • oopsa
  • kuonjezera mavitamini a chiwindi
  • kuthamanga kwa khungu
  • kufufuma kofiira kapena kofiirira (erythema multiforme).

Mndandanda uwu mulibe zovuta zonse za galantamine. Chifukwa chake ndibwino kuti muitane dokotala ngati mutakumana ndi zovuta zina mukamamwa mankhwalawa.

Galantamine Hydrobromide

Kodi ndi mankhwala amtundu wanji omwe amagwirizana ndi galantamine hydrobromide?

Kuyanjana kwa mankhwala kumatanthauza momwe mankhwala ena amakhudzira ena. Kuyanjana kumeneku kumakhudza momwe mankhwala ena amagwirira ntchito ndipo kumatha kupangitsa kuti izi zisagwire ntchito mwinanso kufulumizitsa kuchitika kwa zovuta zina.

Pali zodziwika Kuyanjana kwa galantamine hydrobromide ndi mankhwala ena. Dokotala wanu akhoza kukhala kuti akudziwa kale za kuyanjana kwa mankhwala. Wothandizira zaumoyo wanu amatha kusintha zina mwazomwe mungachite kuti muchepetse mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo kapena mutha kusintha mankhwalawo kwathunthu. Kungakhale kopindulitsa kwa inu kupeza mankhwala komanso makamaka mankhwala ochokera komweko monga mankhwala osakanikirana bwino.

Komanso sungani mndandanda wa mankhwala omwe mukumwa ndikuwulula izi kwa omwe akukuthandizani asanakupatseni mankhwala.

Ena mwa machitidwe a galantamine hydrobromide ndi;

 

  • Kuyanjana ndi anti-depressants

Mankhwalawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuthana ndi kukhumudwa ndipo angakhudze momwe galantamine imagwirira ntchito kuti ikhale yopanda ntchito. Mankhwalawa amaphatikizapo amitriptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline ndi doxepin.

 

  • Kuyanjana ndi mankhwala omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda

Mankhwalawa amatha kukhudza momwe galantamine amagwirira ntchito.

Mankhwalawa ndi monga chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine ndi diphenhydramine.

 

  • Kuyanjana ndi mankhwala oyenda

Mankhwalawa amakhudza ntchito ya galantamine hydrobromide.

Mankhwalawa amaphatikizapo dimenhydrinate ndi meclizine.

 

  • Mankhwala a Alzheimer's

Mankhwalawa amagwiranso ntchito ngati galantamine hydrobromide. Mankhwalawa akagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi atha kukulitsa chiopsezo chokumana ndi zovuta za galantamine. Mankhwalawa ndi monga donepezil ndi rivastigmine.

Komabe, zovuta zina zimatha kupezeka ndi kuphatikiza kwake.

 

  • Memantine

Galantamine ndi memantine amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda a Alzheimer's. Pomwe Galantamine ndi acetylcholinesterase inhibitor memantine ndi wotsutsana ndi NMDA wolandila.

Mukatenga galantamine ndi memantine limodzi, mumakhala ndi chidziwitso chabwinoko kuposa momwe mumagwiritsira ntchito galantamine nokha.

Komabe, kafukufuku wina wakale sanakwaniritse bwino magwiridwe antchito pomwe galantamine ndi memantine adagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi.

 

  • Kuyanjana ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo

Mankhwalawa amakhudza momwe galantamine imagwirira ntchito. Ngati mutagwiritsa ntchito limodzi simungakolole ku galantamine. Mankhwalawa ndi monga darifenacin, tolterodine, oxybutynin ndi trospium.

 

  • Mankhwala am'mimba

Mankhwalawa ndi monga dicyclomine, loperamide ndi hyoscyamine. Zitha kukhudza momwe galantamine imagwirira ntchito.

 

  • Mankhwala a Galantamine ndi autism

Pamene galantamine ndi autism mankhwala monga risperidone amagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi. Adanenedwa kuti asintha zina mwazizindikiro za autism monga kukwiya, ulesi, komanso kusiya anthu

 

Kodi tingapeze kuti izi?

Galantamine hydrobromide itha kusungidwa kuchokera kwa wazamalonda kwanuko kapena m'masitolo ogulitsa pa intaneti. Makasitomala a galantamine kugula kuchokera kwa wamankhwala wovomerezeka yemwe angamupatse mankhwalawa. Ngati mungaganize za galantamine mugule ku mabungwe odziwika bwino ndipo muzigwiritsa ntchito malinga ndi zomwe akukulangizani.

 

Kutsiliza

Galantamine Ndi mankhwala abwino ochiritsira matenda amisala omwe amakhala nawo Alzheimer's matenda. Si mankhwala ochizira matendawa chifukwa sathetsa zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a Alzheimer's.

Iyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati gawo la mankhwala a Alzheimer's njira zina. Ndiwowonjezera wabwino chifukwa cha makina ake awiri owonjezera acetylcholine muubongo. Zimapindulitsanso zina poteteza ma neural poletsa kupsinjika kwa oxidative.

 

Zothandizira
  1. Zowonjezera Lilienfeld S. Gaens E. Kuchita bwino ndi chitetezo cha galantamine mwa odwala omwe ali ndi matenda a Alzheimer's. 2000; 321: 1445-1449.
  2. [Adasankhidwa] Lilienfeld S., & Parys W. (2000). Galantamine: zowonjezera zowonjezera kwa odwala omwe ali ndi matenda a Alzheimer's. Dementia ndi zovuta zamavuto ozindikira11 Suppl 1, 19-27 . https://doi.org/10.1159/000051228.
  3. Tsvetkova, D., Obreshkova, D., Zheleva-Dimitrova, D., & Saso, L. (2013). Antioxidant zochitika za galantamine ndi zina zake zotengera. Zamakono zamankhwala20(36), 4595–4608. https://doi.org/10.2174/09298673113209990148.
  4. Loy, C., & Schneider, L. (2006). Galantamine ya matenda a Alzheimer's komanso kuwonongeka pang'ono kuzindikira. Dongosolo la Cochrane la kuwunika mwatsatanetsatane, (1), CD001747. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001747.pub3.

 

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